The Primary program builds on the skills presented in the Orientation Program. The experiences of the primary student include the continued development of language, motor and social skills, as well as the introduction of concepts such as reasoning, perception, and comparison. This is all accompanied by the development of an internal and external sense of order. 

The Primary experience includes the introduction of academic subjects such as reading, mathematics, science, and geography.

The Primary child begins the process of classifying the multitude of impressions so easily sown during the first three years of life. The Primary environment is a prepared environment based on the needs of the growing student. The student is given the “freedom with limits” in the Montessori classroom. He or she is given the freedom to move as he or she wishes, to make his or her own choice of activities and to work on those activities for a time period of his or her choice.

Because the student has the particularly human tendency to communicate with verbal and written language and has been given a mathematical mind, Montessori designed an environment that would meet his or her developmental needs. One of Montessori's fundamental discoveries was devising a means of introducing highly abstract concepts in a concrete way so that children could explore them at this early stage.